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sage leaves

© 2018 Steven Foster

A sage monograph for the home

Latin Name: Salvia officinalis, Salvia lavandulaefolia


Common Names: sage, common sage, garden sage, true sage


This sage monograph provides basic information about sage—common names, usefulness and safety, and resources for more information.

Source: https://nccih.nih.gov/

Sage Basics

  • Sage has a long history of use as a spice and for health purposes. It was used in ancient Egyptian, Roman, and Greek medicine. In Native American rituals, dried sage is burned to promote healing, wisdom, protection, and longevity.
  • Today, sage is used as a dietary supplement for digestive problems, sore mouth or throat, memory loss, and depression.
  • Sage leaves or their extracts are available as liquids, throat sprays, tablets, lozenges, and capsules.

Sage in Health Research

  • We don’t know much about the health effects of sage because little research has been done on it.

Sage Research Summary

  • Sage has not been clearly shown to be helpful for any health condition.
  • There have been a few studies of sage for sore throat, mood, memory, and blood cholesterol levels. However, the findings are preliminary, and some of the research is of poor quality.

Sage Safety

  • Sage is generally recognized as safe by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration and is approved for food use as a spice or seasoning. However, some species of sage contain thujone, which can affect the nervous system. Extended use or taking large amounts of sage leaf or oil may result in restlessness, vomiting, vertigo, rapid heart rate, tremors, seizures, and kidney damage. Twelve drops or more of the essential oil is considered a toxic dose.

Sage References

  • Sage. Natural Medicines Web site. Accessed at naturalmedicines.therapeuticresearch.com/ on April 22, 2015. [Database subscription].
  • Sage leaf. In: Blumenthal M, Goldberg A, Brinckmann J, eds. Herbal Medicine: Expanded Commission E Monographs. Newton, MA: Integrative Medicine Communications; 2000:330-334.
 

PubMed Articles About


Source: National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI)[Internet]. Bethesda (MD): National Library of Medicine (US), National Center for Biotechnology Information; [1988] – [cited 2018 Apr 5]. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/

Brauer, P., Royall, D., Rodrigues, A., (2021) Use of the Healthy Eating Index in Intervention Studies for Cardiometabolic Risk Conditions: A Systematic Review.

Researchers and counselors need diet-assessment tools that characterize diet at baseline and over time in diet counseling and coaching interventions. Among possible tools, the Healthy Eating Index (HEI) is of interest in cardiometabolic treatment as it has undergone significant validation and development. The objective of this study was to systematically review relevant intervention studies using the HEI and its adaptations to examine whether diet interventions improve diet quality as measured by the HEI and the magnitude of change in included diet-quality scores following dietary intervention. Two databases [Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL) and PubMed] were searched for articles published from January 1995 to December 2019. The review included intervention studies in adults presenting with overweight/obesity and obesity-related chronic disease (metabolic syndrome, diabetes, prediabetes, hypertension, dyslipidemia) who received education or counseling, and the HEI was evaluated from baseline to follow-up (US or Canadian version) or Alternate HEI. Study quality was assessed using Cochrane risk of bias for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) or Cochrane Risk of Bias for Nonrandomized interventions (ROBINS-I). A total of 25 studies were included: 15 RCTs, 3 quasi-experimental studies, and 7 pre-post studies. Eight different versions of the HEI were used. Results demonstrated that diet quality assessed by HEI and its adaptations improved to a clinically relevant degree, especially in studies where multiple food behaviors/food-behavior goals were the focus and where an intensive, long-term intervention was compared with a no-treatment control group. There was wide variation in magnitude of change in included diet-quality indicators. Use of the HEI and its adaptations and other diet-quality tools is promising for better characterization of diet-counseling interventions and results when multiple food behaviors are a focus. Additional development is encouraged.

Wang, CX., Wu, D., Yang, PP., Wu, QH., (2020) [Efficacy and safety of non-vitamin K antagonist versus vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants in the prevention and treatment of thrombotic disease in active cancer patients: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials].

We aimed to compare the efficacy and safety of non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants (NOAC) and vitamin K antagonist (VKA) in the prevention and treatment of thrombotic diseases in patients with active cancer. To find randomized controlled trials (RCT) in which NOACs were compared VKAs in active cancer, we searched the electronic databases (PubMed, Web of Science and Clinical Trials) up to May 2019 and and languages restricted to Chinese and English. According to the screening strategy, two researchers independently screened and extracted literature, evaluated the quality of literature, the suitability of collected cross study data for analysis, and tested the heterogeneity. The relative risk () and 95% confidence interval (95%) of major bleeding, clinically related non-major bleeding, VTE, stroke and all-cause mortality in active cancer patients with VTE, active cancer patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF) was calculated and the results were compared between NOAC with VKA. A total of 9 RCTs were included, including 5 cancers with VTE (5/9) and 4 cancers with NVAF (4/9). A total of 5 867 patients were included. After excluding 1 818 (30.99%) patients with cancer history, 4 049 (68.86%) patients with active cancer were statistically analyzed. Among them, 2 278 (56.26%) received NOAC treatment, 1 771 patients (43.74%) received VKA treatment. The quality of the included documents was high (all scores were>5 points), and the data of each included document could be summarized and analyzed (>0.05). The heterogeneity of main outcome events was very low ( = 0). In VTE patients with active cancer, NOACs were more effective in reducing recurrence of VTE (=0.55, 95% 0.36 -0.84; 0.005) and clinically related non-major bleeding (=0.77, 95% 0.60 -0.98; 0.03) than VKAs. In NVAF patients with active cancer, efficacy of NOACs and VKAs was similar in terms of reducing VTE, stroke, clinically related non-major bleeding, major bleeding and all-cause mortality events (>0.05). For patients with active cancer accompanied by VTE, NOAC may has more advantages in efficacy and safety compared to VKA in the prevention and treatment of thrombotic diseases.

Zhang, ZD., Liu, H., Lyu, J., Yu, DD., Sun, MH., (2020) [Systematic review and Meta-analysis of efficacy and safety of Xiangsha Yangwei Pills in treatment of chronic gastritis].

To systematically evaluate the efficacy and safety of Xiangsha Yangwei Pills in the treatment of chronic gastritis. Compu-ter retrieval was performed for Cochrane Library, Medline, EMbase, China Knowledge Network Database(CNKI), China Biomedical Literature Service System(SinoMed), Chongqing Weipu Chinese Science and Technology Journal Database(VIP) and WanFang Database(WanFang) randomized controlled trials about Xiangsha Yangwei Pills combined with Western medicine in the treatment of chro-nic gastritis. The retrieval time ranged from the establishment of the library to April 26, 2019. Meta-analysis was performed by RevMan 5.3 software after two independent researchers conducted literature screening, data extraction and quality evaluation according to inclusion and exclusion criteria. A total of 1 720 patients were enrolled in 18 RCT. According to the classification of chronic gastritis, they were divided into three subgroups: chronic gastritis, chronic atrophic gastritis and chronic superficial gastritis. The results of Meta-ana-lysis showed that the efficacy of Xiangsha Yangwei Pills combined with Western medicine in treating chronic gastritis was higher than that of Western medicine. As for the recurrence rate, Xiangsha Yangwei Pills combined with Western medicine was lower than Western medicine. And there was no statistical difference about helicobacter pylori(Hp) eradication rate between Xiangsha Yangwei Pills combined with Western medicine as well as Western medicine. In terms of the incidence of adverse reactions, Xiangsha Yangwei Pills combined with Western medicine was lower than Western medicine, and no serious adverse reaction was reported. The results of this systematic review showed that compared with the conventional Western medicine group, Xiangsha Yangwei Pills combined with Western medicine can significantly alleviate clinical symptoms of chronic gastritis, with fewer adverse reactions. However, due to the low methodological quality of the included studies and the reliability of the impact conclusions, high-quality multi-center, large-sample, randomized, double-blind controlled trials are needed for validation.

Clifford, T., Jeffries, O., Stevenson, EJ., Davies, KAB., (2020) The effects of vitamin C and E on exercise-induced physiological adaptations: a systematic review and Meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials examining the effect of vitamin C and/or E on exercise-induced training adaptations. Medline, Embase and SPORTDiscus databases were searched for articles from inception until June 2019. Inclusion criteria was studies in adult humans where vitamin C and/or E had to be consumed alongside a supervised exercise training program of ≥4 weeks. Nine trials were included in the analysis of aerobic exercise adaptations and nine for resistance training (RT) adaptations. Vitamin C and/or E did not attenuate aerobic exercise induced improvements in maximal aerobic capacity (O (SMD -0.14, 95% CI: -0.43 to 0.15,  = 0.35) or endurance performance (SMD -0.01, 95% CI: -0.38 to 0.36,  = 0.97). There were also no effects of these supplements on lean mass and muscle strength following RT (SMD -0.07, 95% CI: -0.36 to 0.23,  = 0.67) and (SMD -0.15, 95% CI: -0.16 to 0.46,  = 0.35), respectively. There was also no influence of age on any of these outcomes ( > 0.05). These findings suggest that vitamin C and/or E does not inhibit exercise-induced changes in physiological function. Studies with larger sample sizes and adequate power are still required.

Chen, G., Chen, Y., Chen, Z., Gao, S., Zhang, P., Zhang, H., Huang, Y., Lin, Y., Wei, L., (2021) Sanao decoction for asthma: Protocol of a systematic review.

Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease characterized by recurrent attacks of breathlessness and wheezing, which often worsen at night or in the early morning and vary from person to person in severity and frequency. Sanao decoction (SAD), as a traditional Chinese medicine compound, has a long history of clinical application in the treatment of respiratory diseases. Whereas neither systematic nor meta-analysis of randomized controlled articles explain the efficacy of SAD in treating asthma. Therefore, we provide a protocol to evaluate the efficacy and safety of SAD for asthma.